¿Qué es y cómo se desarrolla una subasta por división de cosa común?

mitad de una casaLas subastas por DIVISIÓN DE COSA COMÚN suelen ser provocadas por un copropietario que desea obtener un precio superior al que el resto de copropietarios pueden o están dispuestos a darle por su parte (Art. 400 Cod. Civil). No obstante solo se forzará la venta del bien siempre que tras la división éste resulte inservible (Art. 401 C.Civil)

Las condiciones para la subasta del bien la pactan los copropietarios (Art. 2049 LEC de 1881), aún cuando los licitadores podrán aceptar el remate ofertado siempre y cuando se modifiquen algunas condiciones (Art. 2051 LEC de 1881), estará entonces de la mano de quien promovió el expediente aceptar dichas modificaciones antes del tercer día.

Art 397 al 406 del Código Civil (ver Código Civil completo)

Artículo 397.

Ninguno de los condueños podrá, sin consentimiento de los demás, hacer alteraciones en la cosa común, aunque de ellas pudieran resultar ventajas para todos.

Artículo 398.

Para la administración y mejor disfrute de la cosa común serán obligatorios los acuerdos de la mayoría de los partícipes.

No habrá mayoría sino cuando el acuerdo esté tomado por los partícipes que representen la mayor cantidad de los intereses que constituyan el objeto de la comunidad.

Si no resultare mayoría, o el acuerdo de ésta fuere gravemente perjudicial a los interesados en la cosa común, el Juez proveerá, a instancia de parte, lo que corresponda, incluso nombrar un administrador.

Cuando parte de la cosa perteneciere privadamente a un partícipe o a algunos de ellos, y otra fuere común, sólo a ésta será aplicable la disposición anterior.

Artículo 399.

Todo condueño tendrá la plena propiedad de su parte y la de los frutos y utilidades que le correspondan, pudiendo en su consecuencia enajenarla, cederla o hipotecarla, y aun sustituir otro en su aprovechamiento, salvo si se tratare de derechos personales. Pero el efecto de la enajenación o de la hipoteca con relación a los condueños estará limitado a la porción que se le adjudique en la división al cesar la comunidad.

Artículo 400.

Ningún copropietario estará obligado a permanecer en la comunidad. Cada uno de ellos podrá pedir en cualquier tiempo que se divida la cosa común.

Esto no obstante, será válido el pacto de conservar la cosa indivisa por tiempo determinado, que no exceda de diez años. Este plazo podrá prorrogarse por nueva convención.

Artículo 401.

Sin embargo de lo dispuesto en el artículo anterior, los copropietarios no podrán exigir la división de la cosa común, cuando de hacerla resulte inservible para el uso a que se destina.

Si se tratare de un edificio cuyas características lo permitan, a solicitud de cualquiera de los comuneros, la división podrá realizarse mediante la adjudicación de pisos o locales independientes, con sus elementos comunes anejos, en la forma prevista por el artículo 396.

Párr. 2º añadido por art. 1 de la Ley 49/1960, de 21 julio (RCL 1960, 1042).

Artículo 402.

La división de la cosa común podrá hacerse por los interesados, o por árbitros o amigables componedores nombrados a voluntad de los partícipes.

En el caso de verificarse por árbitros o amigables componedores, deberán formar partes proporcionales al derecho de cada uno, evitando en cuanto sea posible los suplementos a metálico.

Artículo 403.

Los acreedores o cesionarios de los partícipes podrán concurrir a la división de la cosa común y oponerse a la que se verifique sin su concurso. Pero no podrán impugnar la división consumada, excepto en caso de fraude, o en el de haberse verificado no obstante la oposición formalmente interpuesta para impedirla, y salvo siempre los derechos del deudor o del cedente para sostener su validez.

Artículo 404.

Cuando la cosa fuere esencialmente indivisible, y los condueños no convinieren en que se adjudique a uno de ellos indemnizando a los demás, se venderá y repartirá su precio.

Artículo 405.

La división de una cosa común no perjudicará a tercero, el cual conservará los derechos de hipoteca, servidumbre u otros derechos reales que le pertenecieran antes de hacer la partición. Conservarán igualmente su fuerza, no obstante la división, los derechos personales que pertenezcan a un tercero contra la comunidad.

Artículo 406.

Serán aplicables a la división entre los partícipes en la comunidad las reglas concernientes a la división de la herencia.

Art. 2048 a 2055 no derogados de la LEC de 1881 (ver Ley Enjuiciamiento Civil de 1881 completa)

TITULO XIII

DE LAS SUBASTAS VOLUNTARIAS JUDICIALES

2048.El que solicite la celebración de alguna subasta judicial deberá acreditar, exhibiendo los documentos adecuados al objeto:

1. Que tiene capacidad legal para el contrato que se propone celebrar.

2. Que puede disponer de la cosa u objeto en la forma que intenta por medio de la subasta.

2049.Con el escrito en que se pida la celebración de la subasta se presentarán el pliego de condiciones, con arreglo a las cuales haya de celebrarse.

2050.Acreditados los extremos indicados en el artículo 2.048, el Juez accederá al anuncio de la subasta, en la forma y bajo las condiciones que propusiere el que la haya solicitado; señalará día y hora para su celebración; mandará que se fijen edictos en los sitios de costumbre y en el pueblo en que radiquen las fincas o haya de ejecutarse el contrato, y que se publiquen en lo periódicos que hubiese designado el peticionario.

En los edictos se expresará que el pliego de condiciones y los títulos de propiedad quedan de manifiesto en la Escribanía para instrucción de los que quieran interesarse en la subasta.

2051.Si se presentare alguna proposición admisible, por ser conforme a las condiciones fijadas en el pliego, la admitirá el Juez, como también las que después se hicieren mejorando la postura.

Terminado el acto, adjudicará el remate al único o mejor postor, a no ser que el que solicite la subasta se hubiere reservado expresamente el derecho de aprobarla, en cuyo caso se le dará vista del expediente para que en el término de tercero día pida lo que le interese.

Igual comunicación se le dará en el caso de que por algún licitador se hiciere la oferta de aceptar el remate modificando alguna de las condiciones.

2052.Aceptando el que promovió el expediente la proposición a que se refiere el segundo párrafo del artículo anterior, se dictará auto teniendo por celebrado el remate a favor del autor de la proposición, y se mandará llevarlo a efecto.

En el caso de no admitirla, manifestará si aprueba el remate o quiere que se celebre nueva subasta bajo las mismas condiciones, o las que tenga por conveniente fijar, o si desiste de su propósito.

2053.Cuando haya de celebrarse nueva subasta se prevendrá en los anuncios que son forzosamente admisibles las posturas que se hagan siempre que cubran el tiempo mínimo que hubiere fijado el que la haya promovido.

2054.Si en este segundo remate no hubiere postor, el interesado quedará en libertad para hacer lo que crea más conveniente, sin que pueda accederse a tercera subasta hasta que transcurra un año, después del cual podrá pedir que se instruya nuevo expediente con el mismo objeto.

2055.Las cuestiones que se suscitaren con ocasión de la subasta se sustanciarán por los trámites establecidos para los incidentes.

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37 Responses to “¿Qué es y cómo se desarrolla una subasta por división de cosa común?”

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    Cual el tiempo minimo para la ejecución de la 2º subasta visto que en la 1º no se haya vendido el piso?

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    tengo un chalet comprado en escritura publica en separacion de bienes con mi ex marido
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